Volume 1:Issue 1, November 2011

Table of Contents, 20 November 2011

Research Title /
Graphical Abstract

Article Information /


Synthesis of Novel Highly Potent Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents


Original Research, A1
Ali Saberi
Asian J. Med. Pharm. Res.
1(1): 01-05, 2011

ABSTRACT: A series of tetrasubstituted imidazoles were synthesized. Compounds were synthesized through a rapid one-pot reaction via microwave irradiation. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, IR and Mass analysis and screened them for their antimicrobial activity against Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal species. Antibacterial activity of all the synthesized compounds was determined by the disc diffusion method on nutrient agar medium. The sterile medium (Nutrient Agar medium (NA, 15 ml) in each petriplate was uniformly smeared with cultures of Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis (both Gram+ve), Staphylococcus aureus, Xanthomonas oryzae and Escherichia coli (all Gram–ve). Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media was prepared and about 15 ml of the medium was poured into each petriplate and allowed to solidify. Five mm disc of 7-day-old culture of the test fungi (Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger) were placed at the center of the petriplates and incubated at 25±2 ºC for seven days.

KEYWORDS: Antibacterial; Antifungal; Imidazole.


Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties of Some Medicinal Plants in Iran


Orıgınal Research, A2

V. Khazaei, S. Nazeri, KH. Piri, H. Nazeri, N. Zamani

Asian J. Med. Pharm. Res.1(1): 06-08, 2011

ABSTRACT: With increased prevalence of antibiotic- resistant bacterial, finding new sources with antibacterial activity could be an effective help in diseases.  The antibacterial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Calendula Officinalis L., Achillea millefolium L. Millefolium L., Allium haemanthoides Boiss. & Reut. ex Regel, Allium ampeloprasum L. and Echinophora platyloba DC. were evaluated against four bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium). These plants are used in Iran folk medicine.  The methanol and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antibacterial activity was examined using paper disc diffusion method. No plant extracts showed activity against Escherichia coli but showed five medicinal plants antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Allium Haemanthoides.

KEYWORDS: Antibacterial activity; Minimal Inhibitory Concentration; Medicinal plants


 Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Echinophora Platyloba DC.


Original Research, A3
V. Khazai, KH. Piri, S. Nazeri, R. Karamian, N. Zamani

Asian J. Med. Pharm. Res. 1(1): 09-11, 2012

ABSTRACT: Free radicals and oxygen species are present in biological systems from a wide variety of sources. These free radicals may oxidize nucleic acids, proteins, lipids or DNA and can initiate degenerative disease. Antioxidant compounds like phenolic acids, polyphenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals. The aim of this study is the investigation of antioxidant properties of Echinophora Platyloba DC. We evaluates the free radical scavenging activity, total flavonoid and the total phenolic compounds of methanol, hydroalcoholic and water extracts of Echinophora Platyloba DC. The antioxidant activity was carried out using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; total phenol content using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for flavonoids determination. The total phenol varied from 1.18±07 to 3.15±04 mg g-1 in the extracts. Flavonoid contents were between 8.15±22 and 3.16±14 mg g-1. The highest radical scavenging effect belonged to methanol extract. The potential use of Echinophora platyloba for their antioxidant and naturalize activities against free radicals is discussed.

KEYWORDS: Antioxidant, free radicals, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents, DPPH



Microscopic and Histological Observations of the Medicinal Stem of Guizotia Abyssinica (L.F.) Cass. (Asteraceae)

Original Research, A4
Dwivedi S and Kohli S.
Asian J. Med. Pharm. Res.
1(1): 12-16, 2011

ABSTRACT: Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass., Syn. G. oleifera D.C., Polymnia abyssinica L.f., Suppl., Verbesina sativa Roxb., Jaegeria abyssinica Spr., commonly known as Ramtil in Hindi and Niger in English belongs to family Asteraceae (Compositae) is native of Abyssinica (South Africa). The plant is used in the treatment of various diseases such as arthritis, microbial infections and seed oil serve as contraceptives. The stem of Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass. (Asteraceae) are popular in Indian traditional medicine and as such provides good to develop herbal drug preparation to be used as phytomedicine. International criteria for validation and standardization of an herbal material as phytomedicine include microscopy and histological examination of raw material to guarantee its authenticity. The fresh stem was taken to study the histology of the species. The thin section was made and treated with saffranine, chloral hydrate and iodine solution, mounted with glycerine and observed under microscope. Similarly, the dried stem was made in to powder and was taken in glass slide, stained and mounted with glycerine, observed under microscope to reveal the powder character. The anatomical study revealed the presence of multicellular trichomes, oil glands, conjoint and collateral vascular bundle arranged in rings, stone cells and pith, while powder microscopy revealed the presence of xylem vessels, tracheids, starch grain, fibres and oil glands. Thus, the present paper aims at setting the anatomical standards to establish quality control parameter for the raw material. The data obtained in present study will serve as valuable tool for identification, authentication and detection of adulterants, standardization and quality control of the Plant Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.
Guizotia abyssinica, Stem, Histology, Microscopy, Standards


Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus within the Hospital Environment

Original Research, A5
AnyadohNwadike S.O., Eri O., Nwaokoro J.C. and Nwadike P.O.
Asian J. Med. Pharm. Res.
1(1): 17-21, 2011

ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in the hospital environment was studied using swab samples from different parts of General Hospital, Umuguma Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. A total of forty five (45) samples were collected from different parts of the hospital environment and analyzed aseptically in the Microbiology laboratory of the hospital, within thirty minutes of collection. Twenty five (25) representing 55.6% samples/ parts of the hospital environment were suspected to haboured S. aureus. Two samples i.e. 4.0% had non-significant growth of the organism while the rest 13 i.e. 28.9% did not seem to habour the organism. The morphological characteristics of the organisms on both media used (Mannitol salt agar and MacConkey agar) were used as presumptive identification while standard biochemical tests were used to confirm the isolates as S. aureus. Result analysis revealed a significant prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus within the hospital environment. There is therefore need for routine surveillance of the hospital environment to ensure that the organism does not continue to increase the rate of nosocomial infections.
Staphylococcus aureus, prevalence, hospital, environment, swab samples


The Effect of Thiothixene Antipsychotic Drug on Serum Lipid Peroxidation Level in Rat

Original Research, A6
Safaeian L and Alavi SA.
Asian J. Med. Pharm. Res.
1(1): 22-25, 2011

ABSTRACT: Thiothixene is a first generation or typical antipsychotic drug. It has been proposed that reactive oxygen species play an important role in neurotoxic adverse effects induced by antipsychotics. In this study, the serum lipid peroxidation levelas a marker of oxidative stress was evaluated in rats' serum. Adult male Wistar rats received chronic administration of thiothixene by daily intraperitoneal injections (10 and 30 mg/kg) for 14 days. Normal control animals received vehicle. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was administered in rats as positive control. Malondialdehyde as an end product of lipid peroxidation was measured in serum samples by spectrophotometric assay. CCl4 increased Malondialdehyde levels (P<0.05) but serum lipid peroxidation levels were not altered by any doses of thiothixene. There was also normal body weight gain after treatment with thiothixene unlike significant reduction in body weight in CCl4-treated animals (P<0.05). The results of present study revealed no undesirable effect on serum lipid peroxidation level and body weight gain after thiothixene treatment however more researches on various tissues especially brain tissue with different doses and durations and also evaluation of different markers of oxidative stress are required for better understanding the mechanism of thiothixene adverse effects.
Thiothixene, lipid peroxidation, rat


Effect of an Infection Control Competency Based Protocol on the Occurrence of Blood Borne Infection in Pediatric Hemodialysis Unit at Minofiya University Hospital

Original Research, A7
ShimaaAbd-El Hady, Dr/ MahaI.Khalifa, Nagwa A. Zein El Dein, HossamHemdan
Asian J. Med. Pharm. Res.
1(1): 26-38, 2011

ABSTRACT: Chronic hemodialysis children are at high risk for infection. So, there is an urgent need for an infection control program to be applied in hemodialysis units. The aims of this study were to identify basic cognitive, psychomotor and attitudinal in infection control competencies of nurses in hemodialysis units, set an infection control protocol for preventing infection in hemodialysis unit, and develop a competency based health education program for nurses about infection control at hemodialysis unit and evaluate the effect of a competency based health education program on nurses competencies related to infection control and occurrence of blood born infection. A quasi-experimental research design was used with a sample of 25 nurses and 15 children were investigated for blood born infection. at Minofiya University Hospitals. Tools were interview questionnaire, observation checklists and laboratory records. The results showed that, there were statistical significant differences between pre test, post test and retention test for nurses' knowledge, skills and attitudes. Conclusion, this study concluded that infection control competency based protocol improved competencies of hemodialysis nurses regarding infection control and blood born infection. So, it was recommended that infection control programs should be performed to upgrade nurses' knowledge and performance for infection control.
Chronic renal failure, Hemodialysis, Competency and Infection control


 Role of renin angiotensin system and its inhibition by perindopril and irbesartan in non alcoholic steatohepatitis induced experimentally in rats


Original Research, A8
Fayez M. F.A., Abd El-Rahman M.N., Abdin A.A., Taha Al-Sh. A.
Asian J. Med. Pharm. Res.
1(1): 39-47, 2011

ABSTRACT: Non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered to be a hepatic component of metabolic syndrome that includes obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and hypertension where insulin resistance forms the corner stone in its pathogenesis. Recently, there is accumulating evidence that renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in development of insulin resistance, hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Thus, it is of much interest to investigate whether therapy against RAS either by perindopril (as an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ACEI) or irbesartan (as an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker; ARB) could provide beneficial effects in the liver of an animal model of steatohepatitis. The study was conducted on 50 albino Wistar rats weighing 110-130g. The rats were equally classified into 5 groups where group 1 served as normal control group fed ad libitum on control diet (5% of energy derived from fat) and received vehicle of gum acacia for 12 weeks. Steatohepatitis was induced by fed ad libitum on high fat diet (58% of energy derived from fat) for either 4 weeks (group 2) or 12 weeks (group 3). The causal role of RAS in development of NASH was evidenced by the significant progressive increase in ACE activity and its positive correlation with final body weight, hepatic triglycerides, levels of serum ALT and TNF-α as will as HOMA-IR as an indicator for insulin resistance. Treatment of steatohepatitis by oral gavage of either perindopril 3 mg/kg/day (group 4) or irbesartan 50 mg/kg/day (group 5) started from the 5th till the 12th week. Perindopril administration exhibited significant reduction in ACE activity, while irbesartan caused non significant increase in ACE activity. Treatment with either perindopril or irbesartan led to significant decrease in final body weight and an overall amelioration in the biochemical parameters and insulin resistance with significant improvement in histopathological grading. The current study proved that RAS plays a major pathogenic role in development of NASH including insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, inflammatory cytokines and hepatic degeneration. In conclusion, intervention of the biological cascade of RAS by either an ACE inhibitor like perindopril or an ARB like irbesartan could provide a new therapeutic approach for non alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH), Renin Angiotensin System, Perindopril, Irbesartan.